State of the Rule of Law in Europe

Reports from National Human Rights Institutions

National Human Rights Institutions (NHRIs) are key players in the promotion and protection of human rights, democracy and the rule of law, as state-mandated bodies acting independently of government with a broad human rights mandate. This report brings together reporting from NHRIs in Europe on the rule of law situation in their country, collected over April to June 2020. It identifies key trends across the region and details the specific situation in each country, including in the context of governments’ responses to the COVID-19 pandemic.

Executive summary

This Executive Summary explains the contribution of NHRIs and ENNHRI towards advancing the rule of law in Europe, the purpose of this report, the key findings of the report, and the next steps planned beyond this report’s publication.

Introduction: report's relevance and impact

This section introduces the report, including an overview of ENNHRI and NHRIs’ work on the rule of law and the relevance of a united approach to rule of law reporting, as well as the report’s scope, methodology and next steps.

This section outlines the key trends identified in the reporting, including issues related to: the independence and effectiveness of the NHRI; human rights defenders and civil society space;checks and balances; justice systems; media pluralism; corruption; and COVID-19.

Country reports

Albania
Andorra No NHRI
Armenia
Austria      
Azerbaijan
Belarus No NHRI
Belgium  
Bosnia and Herzegovina  
Bulgaria
Croatia
Cyprus    
Czech Republic            
Denmark        
Estonia      
Finland
France
Georgia  
Germany      
Great Britain      
Greece  
Hungary  
Iceland No NHRI
Ireland      
Italy No NHRI
Kosovo*  
Latvia            
Liechtenstein No submission
Lithuania
Luxembourg
Malta No NHRI
Moldova  
Monaco No NHRI
Montenegro  
Netherlands        
North Macedonia    
Northern Ireland      
Norway    
Poland
Portugal
Romania  
Russian Federation  
San Marino No NHRI
Scotland      
Serbia  
Slovakia      
Slovenia
Spain        
Sweden No submission
Switzerland No NHRI
Turkey No submission
Ukraine  

* This designation is without prejudice to positions on status, and is in line with UNSC 1244 and the ICJ Opinion on the Kosovo Declaration of Independence.

Last updated in June 2020