The European Convention on Human Rights (Convention) system is of paramount importance for the protection of human rights in Europe. To ensure that this system can do what it envisages, that is, to guarantee human rights protection on the ground, the European Convention and the judgments of the European Court of Human Rights (Court) need to the find their way into the domestic legal orders of Member States. Presently, lack of full compliance with Convention standards and inadequate execution of the Court’s judgements challenge the effective protection the Convention system can offer. Inadequate, delayed and partial compliance with the judgments of the Court affects the extent to which the Court can trigger and improve human rights protection on the ground. These problems exist across Europe: in 2019, over 5,000 Court cases were still pending execution. Many of the cases that are yet to be implemented are so-called repetitive cases, which shows that there are unresolved issues in Member States, that can result in fresh cases before the Court, affecting the latter’s workload. In addition, the implementation of leading cases continues to be problematic as well.